Learning in 3D – Chapter 10 – Summary

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In chapter 10 a maturity model is introduced to support the implementation of 3D learning in organizations:

  • Level 1: Mimicking existing classroom structures
    At this level, instruction is based on replicating what is done in traditional educational settings. Much of the knowledge transferred could be delivered as effectively with 2D synchronous learning software. The focus is on information that must be memorized and the success of the learning event depends highly on having a dynamic instructor with interesting slides.
    To move beyond level 1, the thinking must be beyond the four walls of a classroom, and transport the learners to environments in which they apply their knowledge and skills.
  • Level 2: Expansion of existing learning structures
    At this level the context is specifically designed for the learners to interact with each other and with the environment. The success depends on the construction of the 3DLE and how well the facilitator guides the learners on finding the learning opportunities.
    To move beyond level 2, the essence of the situation mus reflect the conditions under which the work is actually performed.
  • Level 3: Practicing the Authentic task
    At this level, the learner is immersed in the task (s)he would actually perform in the work environment. The focus is on the application of skills. The success depends on how closely the learning events resembles the authentic work situation (including the role others play) and how effectively the learner is debriefed after the process to improve what (s)he is doing.
    To move beyond level 3, the organization how the VIE can be use to create work & products.
  • Level 4: Working
    At this level it is all about the actual creation of value within the learning environment. It involves colleagues working together to create deliverable for in/external clients and learn as they create the final product. This level helps people to solve problems, network and gain new contacts.

The authors conclude chapter 10 with two essays outlining possible visions into the future of VIE:

  1. Campfire 2.0: Virtual gathering spaces bringing people together to discuss life, the universe, …
    Our increasingly global society, the classroom, workplace learning environments and meeting places are just not big enough to support our needs. Second-generation web spaces reach beyond physical boundaries and are growing exponentially: Geography is history and the power of everyone can be brought to bear around joint efforts/learning, based on their capabilities, interests and reputation. Potential options to leverage these self-organized virtual world spaces:

    1. Create deep visualization of complex models in virtual spaces
    2. Find place to express creative thinking (right brain thinkers)
    3. Look for safer places to take risks
    4. Meeting others with similar medical recors to share knowledge and experiment new medical treatments
    5. Use avatars to perform tasks for you (e.g. filter information)
    6. Leverage the power of many eyes for a common solution
    7. Create multiple avatars for yourself with different profiles attending multiple events in parallel
    8. Participate in places/activities which we’ve not previously had access (e.g. inside a body, go to the moon, …)
  1. Learning to be 3D in 2020
    In this essay the authors discuss a report produced for the U.S. Department of Commerce and look how predictions made in 2002 have progressed.  Below the identified predictions:

    1. We live inside the data in 2020, Learning through Adaptation
    2. We evolve into problem-based, reflective learners
    3. We frame our learning into visualizations
    4. We create everything new the first time
    5. Learners filter their results into transactional interfaces

Lastly the authors describe why the 3DL revolution is relevant for us as readers. They provide three reasons why we should embrace this wave:

  1. A new kind of workforce will enter the market place:
    • Small teams
    • Outstanding & competitive services
    • 24/7
    • Accommodate segmented hours with international members at significantly reduced overhead
    • Use every technology to connect partners, suppliers and customers
    • Addicted to 3D game-like interfaces
  2. In a tight economy, you can eliminate the need for buildings and commuting.
  3. Potential to increase revenue by building learning into products and services

Key Questions

  1. After reading this book, do you believe that 3D learning is an absolute must for organizations?
    1. Do you believe that 3D learning will be the “logical” continuation of 2D learning  or
      will it take longer to make individuals feel attracted to 3D Learning and why?
    2. Will it be as successful as the introduction of the cell phone or will it only be a temporarily hype? (e.g.  Second Life has been piloted, but is not yet embraced by bigger companies as far as I know)
  2. If we believe that it is not so much a question if 3D Learning is the future, but rather when,
    than what is the right timing to introduce it within organizations?
    And what should be done to guarantee a successful implementation?


Companies that implement 3D learning will outperform the competition.

Teleconference #9 – Download

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Nine people came together and discussed chapter nine. The recording is available below:

Download/listen to Teleconference recording (4.3 MB)

Summary of chapter nine in slides

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These slides give a summary of chapter nine:

Chapter 9 ‘Rules for Revolutionaries’ – Summary

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This chapter discusses the perspectives, ideas and the lesson experiences of 4 people actively engaged in 3D learning at a very early stage. The four represent 2 companies operating as consultants and two ‘user’ companies, this means companies who did experiment with and implemented 3D Learning. Their essays have been structured following 8 questions (each of them more or less extensively discussed in one of the previous chapters) reporting their hands-on experience of lessons to be learnt:

  1. Overcoming objections
  2. Establishing a beachhead
  3. Securing sponsorship
  4. Making the case
  5. Crossing the Chasm
  6. Going Mainstream
  7. Demonstrating value
  8. Double-loop reflection

The four essays vary in their discussion of each of questions. Nevertheless, overall they put forward the same spirit. Yes, 3D learning is of obvious interest. However, the underlying technology is still fairly new and immature (e.g. not connected to central business systems). In other words, they all stress that one has to be careful in preparing a case and do the ‘right’ thing and make the ‘right’ claims. The chapter concludes with 10 rules, derived from the 4 essays, including for instance ‘change the name game’ and ‘pilot early and often’.

Having arrived in chapter 9, the stage setting for 3D learning has been completed. The final chapter goes ‘just beyond the horizon’. Chapter 9 puts places the previous chapters in context of the experience of ‘practitioners’ of 3D learning. Therefore, it may be of interest to look back.
In the first chapter the book opens with adopting the view that 3D learning is a matter of “to be or not to be” for companies and by explaining a natural flow from web, web 2.0 to the immersive web escaping ‘flat land’.
The question of this week can concentrate on what we, as self-claimed visionaries, believe to be our biggest challenge after reading the book or do we concentrate on this chapter.

  • Do the revolutionaries bring additional insights (or has everything been quite well covered already in the preceding questions).
  • Should not we change role (from readers to creators) and start to write our version of the ch9′ essay and describe what we would (hope to be able to) state if we would be asked for this essay.

Some other general questions:

  • How does 3D learning compare to (improve upon) project-based learning, problem-based learning; the use of learning using (video-)skype or videoconferencing; network learning to innovate and to co-create knowledge; etc…. ?? So, do we have enough experience in “traditional technology based FLAT learning”? Is 3DL a genuine overall integrator ?
  • Web 2.0. It is there. People use it at a very large scale. It does not need “sales” stories. It sells itself. (Yes, it needs guidance, clear objectives, etc. to be used and useful for learning. But it is there. People know it and use it). So why, do we need this careful approach for 3DL in proposing and implementing.
  • Is 3DL really, the natural follow-up of web2.0 -as claimed- or an autonomous, promising and specialised technological development (with elements of gaming, virtual reality, simulations) that makes excellent use of the web-evolution?

Teleconference #8 – Download

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Unfortunately I only started the recording about 10 minutes into the call. But there is still 20 minutes of good discussion about building business cases for new technologies and how best to diffuse innovations.

Download/listen to Teleconference recording (2.3 MB)

Chapter 8 Summary

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Please do this poll:

Which of the following are you in regards to VIEs? http://poll.fm/1znlw.

Teleconference #7 – Download

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We just finished the seventh teleconference on learning in 3D. It was a good discussion on the different roles in creating a Virtual Immersive Learning Environment and on what the Dutch Open University is doing in this space.

Download/listen to Teleconference recording (4 MB)

Peter van Rosmalen has also shared the following links:

A multimedia scenarion toolkit: http://emergo.ou.nl/emergo/community/EN/emergo.htm
An overview of all CELSTEC research programs: http://celstec.org/node/52

Learning in 3D – Chapter 7 Summary

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I am taking part in a virtual reading group organised by Hans de Zwart, and we are each taking it in turn to summarise a chapter of the book. This week it is my turn, and I have been asked to summarise Chapter 7 – Overcoming Being Addled by Addie. You can find out more about the reading group here.

This chapter proposes that whilst the instructional design process for a 3DLE differs to that for more traditional learning interventions, it is a modification and extension of existing models rather than a replacement. It explores how the Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation (ADDIE) model can be used.

It attempts to contrast the differences by providing a narrative about two different design processes; one for a 2D synchronous environment and one for a 3D synchronous environment. It highlights that in a 3DLE you are required to create the context and environment as well as the content and activities. Whilst the 2D scenario was the work of one instructional designer in a matter of hours, the 3D scenario was developed by a multi-disciplinary team over a period of weeks.

It lists some key design points:

  • Create the right context – the context may change during the session but it should always foster collaboration, help achieve specific learning goals, foster peer to peer interaction and provide the right context for learning to occur.
  • Create specific objectives, but don’t tell the learner – Instead of spelling out the objectives, let the learners explore and discover them themselves.
  • Provide minimal guidelines – Provide just enough guidance to achieve the learning goal.
  • Encourage collaboration – If required, create a context where collaboration is necessary.
  • Allow opportunities to demonstrate learning – Provide the opportunity for safe practice as well as instructor and peer review.
  • Build in incentives – Use tokens to incentivise learners, but avoid making it appear to game like.

It goes to explain how the ADDIE model can be used to ensure that what is created in the 3DLE is instructionally valid. The key elements to be considered are grouped under the ADDIE headings.

  • Analysis – as with any learning intervention, we start with analysis.
  • Task, concept or skill – can the task, concept or skills be appropriately taught in the 3DLE?
  • Environment – In what environment should the learning occur? Realistic or stylised? Does the environment need a level of stress to be introduced?
  • Technical considerations – Ensure that the available infrastructure can support the desired environment.
  • Learners – Ensure that learners are ready and prepared to use the 3DLE. provide pre-training if required.
  • Design – Apply appropriate instructional strategies.
    • Synchronous or Asynchronous – Should the environment be synchronous and instructor led or asynchronous and self paced?
    • Sequence and instructional elements – Define the specific learning activities and their ordering.
    • Environment and structures – Design appropriate structures within your environment.
    • Design outside of reality – Using scenarios that are impossible in the real world can create a sense of excitement and fun, and enhance the learning.
    • Consider the debriefing – The debriefing is important for reflection. Decide who will run tis, and the manner in which it will take place.
    • Storyboard – Create storyboards and ‘walk though’ the scenarios before committing to development.
  • Develop – Create the environment; this may be custom developed, configured or purchased.
  • Implement – Roll out the 3DLE to the organisation.
  • Evaluation – Evaluate throughout the process, and measure learning and as well as the quality of the 3DLE.
  • This chapter also provides guidance for working with a third party virtual world vendor, and lists five key points:

    1. Tie your request to a business need – the vendor should understand the business requirement or academic need
    2. Know what to expect – Inform yourself about the vendor landscape
    3. Be specific about your requirements – Be clear about what you need
    4. Do your homework – Research the vendor
    5. Visit the virtual space yourself – Test driving the virtual environment is essential. Viewing a recorded example is not enough to be able to make an informed decision.

    Invitation to join an engaging exercise..

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    There have now been sufficient positive responses to the invitation to Let’s Get Visceral in the Immernet to be able to proceed!

    Overview of the exercise:

     - Purpose:
       Open-ended, however I am hoping to gain some or all of the following:
       To explore & analyse the criteria, experience, qualities and value of:
         -’visceral’ engagement.
         – Some of the learning archetypes at work, particularly Avatar Persona & Role Play
         – Noticing the comparitive degrees of immersion, suspension of disbelief (#SoD), narrative and reflection between interacting via my avatar in the first or 3rd person e.g. through its eyes or watching it (as ‘a highly vested voyuer’ p.93).
         – I think the intellectual aspects of immersive learning are becoming clearer as we progress. I am interested in further unfolding more of an understanding of the ‘emotional’ in the ‘emotional & intellectual investment’ p.92.
       Noticing the interplay of the learning domains of Agency, Exploration, Experience & Connectedness.
       What else would you like to suggest…

     - Platform: Quake Live mmolrp platform ( http://bit.ly/8Yc4KA ).
       The reasons for choosing this platform for the excercise are as follows:
       - Cost
       – Works via browser
       – Life ‘n’ death: there is alot at stake for you as your avatar and your team.
       – Convincing graphics.

     - At least two sessions will be played
       1)Team Deathmatch
       2)Capture the flag

    - We will use also communicate via live audio through the Shell Meetme bridge.

    - Following the sessions there will be a discussion and brief report to feed back into the Lin3Drg group

    - Next steps:
    1. Sign up at http://bit.ly/letsgetvisceral
    2. Create your avatar
    3. Take the 20-30 minute guided tutorial
    4. Indicate your preferred days/time for participation at: http://bit.ly/cSRczx – All welcome!

    Chapter 7: Overcoming Being Addled by Addie

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    The chapter assigned to me by Hans was relevant and timely to my work; I suspect that was no coincidence.  We’ve selected a global eLearning vendor for what we’re calling level 3 eLearning – more complex, gaming type simulations.  In my view, level 3 goes much deeper even than Second Life and such.  It goes into serious gaming simulations with many moving parts, decisions to make, implications to decisions with options to recover, multiple players that influence everything…mimicking real life.  In the vendor selection, and now as we start the process to onboard them to our ways of working and business learning resources and needs, many of the questions posed here are being asked by me and my team.

    In summary, you have to be a Instructional Designer and a bit of a video producer/director to get this right but it can be done.  I found these key points of interest for myself; I hope they are of interest to you as well:

    • Many of the same processes used to develop more traditional instruction can be used when developing virtual learning worlds.
    • One common mistake in designing 3DLEs is failing to have specific learning objectives, either formal or informal, for the intended interactions.  This seems a “no brainer” considering this would also be a mistake of design for any method of delivery!
    • Development of a 3DLE is far more complicated than 2D types and require a modification, not a totally new approach.
      • 2D (WebEx or Centra type) – objectives slide, reduce the number of words on each screen, add a couple of interactive exercises, add a few instructional design elements, group all like information together, get some photographs of the Model Z from marketing; learning happens on desktop of the Learners and requires fewer skill sets
        • ISD
        • SME
    • 3D – objectives, creation of large and small store displays as well as a trade-show floor display, creation of a giant Model Z drill, development of “feature cards” to place on both the giant drill and the smaller drill to provide information about the new features, providing sales representatives with a “selling experience” role play and finally, the creation of interactive displays for the learners to create as a final exercise, schematics versus simple photographs, physical prototype, time to train facilitators in more complex VIE; learning happens in virtual world that must be created with detail and requires multiple skill sets
      • Project Manager
      • ISD
      • SME
      • Context Developer/Builder
      • Script Writer/Programmer
      • IT Rep
      • Rep of Learner Pop
      • You are designing an “environment” for learning to occur
      • Teachable moments are based on experience of the Learner, not the mandate of the instructor.
      • No two Learners will have same experience because they each have different historical knowledge/experience and each has different experience in the VIE as a result of their “journey” in it
      • Experience is much more about context than content
      • Keep these design points in mind when creating virtual learning experiences
        • Create the right context
        • Create specific objectives – spelled out for Learner in 2D but not in 3D;in 3D, ask Learner questions or give them challenges where objectives will be addressed
        • Provide minimal guidelines – key gain in 3D is learning through exploration
        • Encourage collaboration
        • Allow opportunities for demonstrating learning; and
        • Build in incentives
        • ADDIE
          • Analysis – examine 4 main areas
            • Task, concept or skill to be taught
            • Environment – realistic or surreal?
            • Technical considerations – graphical cards, processing power, bandwidth, firewall issues, etc
            • Learners – are they ready for this?  Do they know how to work in it?  Will it require too much time for setup and prep?
    • Design
      • Synchronous or asynchronous
      • Sequence and Instructional elements
      • Environment and structures
      • Design outside of reality
      • Consider the debriefing
      • Storyboard
    • Develop – Many items can be purchased; cars, trucks, helicopters
    • Implement – many tips in the book on this for before, during and after but quite similar to any learning event (pilot, review, revise, rollout)
    • Evaluation
      • Learners
      • Instructions
      • Step-by-step Designing Process – there is a 15 step process detailed out in the book
      • Working with a 3rd party vendor
        • Tie your request to a business need
        • Know what to expect
        • Be specific about your requirements
        • Do your homework
        • Visit the virtual space yourself

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